Footnotes from “and the echo follows”

Here are the endnotes/footnotes from “and the echo follows”. Click on the chapters below to see the endnotes for that chapter (click again to hide them). Links lead to full interviews in In Motion Magazine and many other original source articles in publications from The New York Times to Amnesty Magazine and La Jornada. Other resources include links to movement organization web sites around the world, publishing houses, videos and much more. If you are reading the book and you are near a computer, you can see the cites, follow the links, and review the reference material.

 

Chapter 1: Notes 1-103

1. The title “… and the echo follows” comes from a quoted discussion at a Zapatista Encounter in Chiapas, Mexico in 1994. The extract is quoted and discussed on pages 186-7 of the book Grassroots Post-Modernism, Remaking the Soil of Cultures by Gustavo Esteva and Madhu Suri Prakash. (Published in 1998 by Zed Books Ltd, London and New York). In this discussion about a “web of new social movements” and what comes next, the extract says, “The echo follows, the reflected image of the possible and forgotten; the possibility and need to speak and listen. … It is not the echo which slowly extinguishes itself or the force that diminishes after it reaches its highest point. … Yes, the echo that breaks and continues. … The echo of the propio pequeño (the small that belongs to you) of the local and particular, reverberating in the echo of the propio big (the big that belongs to you), the intercontinental and galactic. … The echo which recognizes the existence of the other and does not put itself over the other or attempt to make the voice of the other mute. … The echo that takes its own place and speaks its own voice and speaks the voice of the other. … The echo that reproduces its own sound and opens itself to the sound of the other. … The echo of this rebel voice transforming itself and renovating itself in other voices. … One echo that becomes many voices, in a web of voices that, before the deafness of Power, opts for speaking to itself, knowing that it is one and many, knowing that it is equal in its aspiration to listen and make others listen to it, knowing that it is different in the tones and levels of the voices constituting it.”

2. Dedication – see book.

Introduction – Words and Pictures

3. In Motion Magazine® is a multicultural, online publication about democracy. It first went online August 2, 1995. It is a growing archive of interviews, articles, papers, works of poetry, fiction, and photography. Sections include — Affirmative Action, Art Changes: From Where I Stand, Autonomy: Chiapas-California, Civil and Human Rights, Education Rights, Global Eyes, Healthcare, Photo of the Week, Rural America. The co-editors are Roger Allison, Roberto Flores, Alice Lovelace, Pedro Noguera, Rhonda Perry, and publisher Nic Paget-Clarke. The url is http://www.inmotionmagazine.com

4. Journalist Bob Schieffer

Part 1 – Democracy as Food Creation

5. Interview with Rosy Barrios Ventura of La Red: Working to Rebuild Ourselves. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, September 3, 2005, in San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico. Published in In Motion Magazine December 18, 2005. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/rbv_int_eng.html. Translated from Spanish to English by Janet Doyle (irlandesa). http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/rbv_int_esp.html

Chapter 1 – Industrial Agriculture

6. The Archaeology of Tiwanaku by Juan V. Albarracin-Jordan (Ph.D.), Figure 2.9 Chronological Schemes. Published by P.A.P., La Paz, Bolivia.

7. Albarracin-Jordan, chapter 3.

8. Albarracin-Jordan, pages 76-77.

9. From an unpublished phone interview by Nic Paget-Clarke with Bill Christison in Chillicothe, Missouri, January 27, 2008.

10. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Bill Christison.

11. The Corporate Reapers: The Book of Agribusiness by Al V. Krebs. Published in 1992 by Essential Books, Washington, D.C.

12. The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism by Naomi Klein, page 57. Published in 2007 by Metropolitan Books, New York.

13. Krebs, pages 214-220.

14. From an unpublished interview with Roger Allison, executive director of the Missouri Rural Crisis Center, by Nic Paget-Clarke in Armstrong, Missouri, February 5, 2005.

15. See the Farm Aid website at http://www.farmaid.org

16. The United Farmer and Rancher Congress: 1986 – Strengthening the Spirit of America. PDF of booklet available at http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/ra07/ufrc_all_lo.pdf

17. A Legacy of Crisis: Farmer Solutions, Corporate Resistance by George Naylor and Bert Henningson, Jr., Ames, Iowa. Published in The United Farmer and Rancher Congress booklet, 1986 (see endnote 16). Article republished in In Motion Magazine, October 31, 2007. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/ra07/crisis_86.html

18. See a variety of sources and theories on interpretations of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum in Wikipedia at
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_interpretations_of_The_Wonderful_Wizard_of_Oz

19. Farm Bill Basics: Formula for Prosperity and Fairness by George Naylor, Jim Dubert, Bert Henningson, Jr. and Curt Stofferahn, Ames, Iowa. Published in The United Farmer and Rancher Congress booklet, 1986 (see endnote 16). Article republished in In Motion Magazine, November 18, 2007. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/ra07/farmbill_86.html

20. In an unpublished interview I did March 14, 2010 with George Naylor, a longtime analyst of farm economics and a former president of the National Family Farm Coalition, Naylor said. “The point is that a farmer can get a non-recourse loan so that they are not forced to sell their crop at a very low price, and then wait until prices recover so that they can sell their crop and pay off the loan. But, if in this farmer’s locality prices don’t recover enough, then that grain becomes part of the nation’s surplus. … And the farmer can then keep the loan money. … when farmers have that available, they would never take less than that loan rate (which then) becomes the national minimum price, the actual minimum price in the market place.”

He added, “It needs to be clear that it is in fact a nine-month loan — it always was anyway — so that in the nine months you either had sold the grain for a price that you thought was right and you could pay back the loan, or at that point you forfeit the grain without paying any interest on the loan.”

Also, he explained the difference between a recourse loan and a non-recourse loan. “… if you get a loan from a bank and it’s a recourse loan, and if the price of grain goes so low that you don’t even have the money to pay back the loan, they will not only want the corn but they are going to want you to sell something else to pay back the loan. They can force you to sell your cattle or your tractor or your farm on a recourse loan. … Recourse means that there’s something that the bank can do to get their money, whereas a non-recourse loan means the only collateral is the grain that is in the bin.”

21. Unpublished George Naylor interview, March 14, 2010.

22. Adam Smith in Beijing: Lineages of the Twenty-First Century by Giovanni Arrighi, page 328. Published in 2007 by Verso, London and New York.

23. Krebs, pp. 152-153.

24. Naylor and Henningson, Jr., A Legacy of Crisis.

25. The North American Farm Alliance was founded in 1983. The founding chairman and president was Merle Hansen from Newman Grove, Nebraska. Born in 1919, he died in 2009.

26. Paget-Clarke, unpublished interview with Roger Allison.

27. U.S. Department of Agriculture — http://www.usda.gov

28. Interview with Rhonda Perry of the Missouri Rural Crisis Center: Grassroots Missouri Organizing Since 1985. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, February 5, 2005, in Armstrong, Missouri. Published in In Motion Magazine January 24, 2006. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/ra06/rperry_int05.html

29. National Family Farm Coalition — http://www.nffc.net

30. NFFC website / Click on Who We Are.

31. See booklet Food Sovereignty by NFFC and Grassroots International – http://www.nffc.net/Issues/Trade%20and%20Food%20Sovereignty/NFFCFoodSovBrochure.pdf

— Grassroots International, through grant-making, education and advocacy, supports the initiatives of peasants and family farmers, women and indigenous groups to protect human rights to land, water and food. See http://www.grassrootsonline.org/

32. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Rhonda Perry.

33. According to the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the term “Green Revolution” was coined by William Gaud, the USAID administrator, in 1968. http://www.usaid.gov/press/frontlines/fl_aug08/p2_borlaug.htm

For more on the role of USAID, the World Bank, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the Ford Foundation in the Green Revolution read Ch. 1 of The Violence of the Green Revolution by Vandana Shiva. Published in 1991 by Zed Books, London and New York.

34. Food First Policy Brief No.12: Ten Reasons Why the Rockefeller and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundations’ Alliance for Another Green Revolution Will Not Solve the Problems of Poverty and Hunger in Sub-Saharan Africa by Eric Holt-Gimenez, Ph.D., Miguel A. Altieri, Ph.D., and Peter Rosset, Ph.D. October 2006. http://www.foodfirst.org/files/pdf/policybriefs/pb12.pdf

35. President Manuel Ávila Camacho, president of Mexico from 1940-1946.

36. Interview with Gustavo Esteva: The Society of the Different — Part 3: Regenerating Community/A Political Alternative. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, September 6-7, 2005, in Oaxaca, Oaxaca, Mexico. Published in In Motion Magazine April 8, 2006.
http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/gest_int_3.html

37. DuPont website — http://www2.dupont.com They still use “miracles of science™,” but as of January 9, 2010 they seem to have now dropped the “multi-national chemicals and healthcare company.”

38. The Death of Ramón González: The Modern Agricultural Dilemma by Angus Wright, page 173. Published by University of Texas Press; Revised edition, 2005.

39. Wright, page 178.

40. Oral History Interview With Merwin L. Bohan, Harry S. Truman Library & Museum. Interview by Richard D. McKinzie, Dallas, Texas, June 15, 1974. http://trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/bohanm.htm

41. Excerpts from The Economic Transformation by Richard S. Thorn, from Beyond The Revolution: Bolivia Since 1952, edited by James M. Malloy and Richard S. Thorn. © 1971, University of Pittsburgh Press. This excerpt from page 165.

42. See the TeachMeFinance.com website at http://www.teachmefinance.com/Financial_Terms/import_substitution.html

43. Thorn, page 160.

44. Interview with Miguel Angel Crespo of PROBIOMA / A Contribution To Agroecology: Biological Control, Certified Forest, Local Control. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, August 28-29, 2006, in Santa Cruz and in (and to and from) San Luis, Santa Cruz department, Bolivia. The Spanish/English interpreter was Mark Camburn. Published in In Motion Magazine November 11, 2007.
In English: http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/mac_int_eng.html
In Spanish: http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/mac_int_esp.html

45. The first Bolivian land reform law was actually passed in 1953. Inter Press Service News Agency, Bolivia: Delays in Land Reform a ‘Time Bomb’ by José Luis Alcázar. http://www.ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=31029

46. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Miguel Angel Crespo.

47. Thorn, pages 187-8.

48. Thorn, page 189.

49. Thorn, page 209.

50. Interview with Geraldo Fontes of the MST: The Landless Rural Workers’ Movement, Part 1 – Building the New Society Now. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, September 2, 2004 in São Paulo, Brazil. The Portuguese/English interpreter was Ana Amorim. Published in In Motion Magazine March 26, 2005. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/gf_mst_int.html

51. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Geraldo Fontes.

52. The official English-language website of Brazil’s Landless Rural Workers’ Movement (MST). http://www.mstbrazil.org/?q=about

53. Interview with Miguel Angel Nuñez (2004): Farmers are Demanding Agroecology / Making Democracy Participative. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, September 4-7, 2004 in Barinas and Caracas, Venezuela. Published in In Motion Magazine November 16, 2004. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/man_int.html

54. Interview with Miguel Angel Nuñez (2007): The Science of Sustainable Agriculture Is Agroecology. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, August 26, 2007 in Mérida, Venezuela. Published in In Motion Magazine June 22, 2008. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/man_int07.html

55. The Vulnerability of Oil-based Farming by Lester R. Brown, Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, Vol. 8, No. 1, 41-46 (1988). Copyright ©1988, SAGE Publications.

56. Making A Killing From Hunger by GRAIN, April 2008, Barcelona, Spain. http://www.grain.org/articles/?id=39
Also published in In Motion Magazine http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/grain_food08.html

57. GRAIN, Making A Killing From Hunger – Tables 1 and 2.

58. Bill and Melinda Gates and Rockefeller Foundations together found the Alliance for a Green Revolution for Africa (AGRA) The Green Revolution Arrives in Africa, by Richard J. Blaustein, Bioscience, January 2008 excerpted in Britannica.com
http://www.britannica.com/bps/additionalcontent/18/28754424/The-Green-Revolution-Arrives-in-Africa

59. Former U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan is Chairman of the Board of the Alliance for a Green Revolution for Africa. http://www.agra-alliance.org/section/about/board_staff

60. World Bank President Calls for Plan to Fight Hunger in Pre-Spring Meetings Address, April 2, 2008, the World Bank web site.

61. The International Food System and the Climate Crisis by GRAIN, October 2009. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/grain_climate.html
Also: http://www.grain.org/seedling/?id=642

62. The three former prime ministers of India at the rally in New Delhi were V. P. Singh, H. D. Deve Gowda, and I. K. Gujral. The Tribune, August 27, 2003.

63. Biopiracy: The Plunder of Nature and Knowledge by Vandana Shiva. Published in 1997 by South End Press, Boston, Massachusetts.

64. Interview with Vandana Shiva: The Role of Patents in the Rise of Globalization. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, August 27, 2003 in New Delhi, India. Published in In Motion Magazine March 28, 2004. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/vshiva4_int.html

65. Interview with Devinder Sharma: The Politics of Food and Agriculture / Part 2 – From Secured-Cash Crops to Village Republics. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, August 25, 2003 in New Delhi, India. Published in In Motion Magazine November 11, 2003. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/devsh_int2.html
Also: Monsanto Agrees to Acquire Plant Breeding International Cambridge From Unilever, July 15, 1998. PRNewswire.
http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Monsanto+Agrees+to+Acquire+Plant+Breeding+International+Cambridge…-a020906370

66. The Violence of the Green Revolution by Vandana Shiva. Published in 1991 by Zed Books, London and New York.

67. Shiva, The Violence of the Green Revolution, page 111.

68. Shiva, The Violence of the Green Revolution, page 64, 201.

69. Shiva, The Violence of the Green Revolution, page 216.

70. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Vandana Shiva (2003).

71. Interview with Ian Henderson: GE is another way of being unsustainable in the biological sense/The market wants an un-modified product. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, February 19, 2001 in Amberly, Aotearoa/New Zealand. Published in In Motion Magazine May 19, 2001. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/nztrip/ih1.html

72. Sally Hacker was a professor of sociology at Oregon State University. She died in 1988. She described herself as a “radical feminist anarchist.” She studied and wrote about, among other things: women, education, technology, and agribusiness. For more information see — http://oasis.lib.harvard.edu/oasis/deliver/~sch00610

73. Krebs, page 74. The Sally Hacker quote was originally published in the Oregon State University publication the second wave, Spring/Summer, 1977.

74. Aotearoa – the Maori name for New Zealand.

75. Interview with Annette Cotter (Greenpeace campaigner): The Future Is GE Free/Genetically modified organisms are unpredictable, irreversible, unnecessary. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, February 20, 2001 in Wellington, Aotearoa/New Zealand. Published in In Motion Magazine May 19, 2001. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/nztrip/ac1.html

76. Roundup is the Monsanto Company brand name for glyphosate herbicides.
See History of Monsanto’s Glyphosate Herbicideshttp://www.monsanto.com/monsanto/content/products/productivity/roundup/back_history.pdf
Also see Journal of Pesticide Reform, Winter 2004, Vol. 24, No. 4,
http://www.pesticide.org/glyphosate.pdf

77. In the United States, Monsanto first introduced this technology in Roundup Ready soy beans. Conversation with former NFFC president George Naylor, March 14, 2010. Also, as of 2010, 90 percent of soy beans (and 70% of corn and cotton) grown in the United States are Roundup Ready.
See: Farmers Cope With Roundup-Resistant Weeds by William Neuman and Andrew Pollack, May 3, 2010, The New York Times.

78. Interview with Russell Simmons: A Guarantee of Safe Food/Organizing Organic Dairy Farmers. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, February 14, 2001 in Waikato, Aotearoa/New Zealand. Published in In Motion Magazine May 19, 2001.
http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/nztrip/russim1.html

79. Farmers Cope With Roundup-Resistant Weeds by William Neuman and Andrew Pollack, May 3, 2010, The New York Times.

80. Argentina: Soy – High Profits Now, Hell to Pay Later by Marcela Valente, July 29, 2008, Inter Press Service News Agency, http://ipsnews.net/print.asp?idnews=43353

81. Interview with Doreen Stabinsky: Assessing the Risks of Genetic Engineering / Super weeds, non-target impacts, horizontal gene transfer. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, February 17, 2001 in Auckland, Aotearoa/New Zealand. Published in In Motion Magazine May 18, 2001. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/nztrip/ds1.html

82. To read about the current status of the campaign to keep New Zealand GE Free, see Greenpeace’s GE FreeNZ webpage at — This link no longer online. Visit Greenpeace New Zealand at: http://www.greenpeace.org/new-zealand/en/

83. Frankenstein, or, The Modern Prometheus by Mary Shelley. Originally published in 1818. My edition was published in 1992 by Penguin Books.

84. Biotech Bytes: Who’s Winning the Frankenfoods Fight? / Pharmageddon Strikes Back: Disinformation, TV Ads, Regulatory Reforms by Ronnie Cummins of the Campaign for Food Safety, Little Marais, Minnesota. Published in In Motion Magazine June 20, 2000,
http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/geff8.html

85.
Interview with Sydney Jackson: “Undisturbed and exclusive possession of the land, estates and forests”/ The Strength In It. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, March 5, 2001 by phone (from San Diego, U.S.) to Auckland, Aotearoa/New Zealand. Published in In Motion Magazine April 22, 2001. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/nztrip/sj1.html

86. To read articles by Kekuni Blaisdell visit — http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/pacificindex.html.

87. Sydney Jackson passed away in 2007. To read about his life and passing visit – http://www.nzherald.co.nz/news/print.cfm?objectid=10461545

88. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Sydney Jackson.

89. Interview with Maui Solomon: The Wai 262 Claim by Six Maori Tribes / Flora and fauna and cultural and intellectual heritage rights. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, March 5, 2001 by phone (from San Diego, U.S.) to Wellington, Aotearoa/New Zealand. Published in In Motion Magazine April 22, 2001. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/nztrip/sj1.html

90. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Maui Solomon.

91. Interview with Fiona Cram and Glenis Philip-Barbara: Genetic Engineering and Maori Health / Different ways of managing and understanding knowledge. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, February 15, 2001 in Auckland, Aotearoa/New Zealand. Published in In Motion Magazine May 31, 2001. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/nztrip/fcgpb1.html

92. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Fiona Cram & Glenis Philip-Barbara

93. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Fiona Cram & Glenis Philip-Barbara

94. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Fiona Cram & Glenis Philip-Barbara

95. Interview with Richard Haigh of The Valley Trust: Sustainable Development — “Participatory Development”. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, August 27, 2002 in KwaDedangendlale, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Published in In Motion Magazine June 8, 2003. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/rh1.html

96. Monsanto Seeks Big Increase in Crop Yields by Andrew Pollack, The New York Times, June 5, 2008 http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/05/business/worldbusiness/05crop.html

97. If you are wondering if cotton has much of anything to do with food, I have learned that cotton seeds are used as a vegetable oil and also they are used in animal feed. Unpublished conversation with former NFFC president George Naylor, March 14, 2010.

98. Klein, pages 7-9. (Refer back to Endnote 12.)

99. Pollack, Monsanto Seeks Big Increase in Crop Yields.

100. Paying the Price for Global Growth by Ban Ki-moon, guardian.co.uk, July 3, 2008 http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2008/jul/03/g8.climatechange

101. Profits from some of the world’s largest grain traders for 2008 in $US million, followed by percent increase from 2007: Cargill (USA) 3,951/69%; Archer Daniels Midland (USA) 2,624 /-17%; Bunge (USA) 1363/13%. Profits from some of the world’s largest fertilizer companies for 2008 in $US million, followed by percent increase from 2007: Potash Corp (Canada) 4,963/164%; Yara (Norway) 3,350/131%; Mosaic (USA) 2,682/430%. Profits from some of the world’s largest seed/pesticide companies for 2008 in $US million, followed by percent increase from 2007: Monsanto 2,926/120%; Syngenta 1,692/ 19%; Bayer 1,374/40%. All figures were compiled by GRAIN from corporate reports. http://www.grain.org/seedling/?id=592

102. See this link to read the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peopleshttp://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/en/declaration.html

103. Interview with Victoria Tauli-Corpuz of Tebtebba Foundation, An indigenous people’s policy research center: “Democracy In Relation To How Food Is Distributed.” Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, September 2, 2002 in Johannesburg, South Africa. Published in In Motion Magazine June 20, 2003. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/vtc1.html

Chapter 2: Notes 104-127

104. Food Sovereignty: A Glimpse of the Peasant and Small Farmer Association Movement in Mozambique by Nic Paget-Clarke. Published in In Motion Magazine December 16, 2008. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/npc_moz_assoc.html

105. Bananas: How The United Fruit Company Shaped the World by Peter Chapman. Published in 2007 by Canongate, New York. Monoculture, p. 104; name change, pp 186-187. Other references throughout.

106. La Vía Campesina: Globalization and the Power of Peasants by Annette Aurélie Desmarais, page 101. Published in 2007 by Fernwood Publishing, Halifax and Pluto Press, London and Ann Arbor, Michigan. http://www.plutobooks.com

107. La Vía Campesina website, http://www.viacampesina.org (Go to the Organisation page.)

108. La Vía Campesina website, Organisation page.

109. Confederación Nacional de Mujeres Campesinas Indígenas Originarias de Bolivia “Bartolina Sisa” — http://www.bartolinasisa.org/

110. Confederación de Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador — http://www.conaie.org/

111. Confederación Nacional de Organizaciones Campesinas, Indigenas y Negras — http://www.fenocin.org/

112. Asociación de Trabajadores del Campo — http://www.movimientos.org/cloc/atc-ni/index.phtml

113. Interview with Dr. Luis Macas of CONAIE: The Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador / “What we are proclaiming is the self-determination of the peoples.” Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, August 31, 2007 in Quito, Ecuador. Translation to English by Nic Paget-Clarke and Janet Doyle. Published in In Motion Magazine June 6, 2008.
In English: http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/lm_int_eng.html
In Spanish: http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/lm_int_esp.html

114. Primavesi, A. – (1984) Manejo Agroecológico del Suelo, Ed. Ateneo, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Bruns, A. – (1987) El Cultivo Biológico, Vida Sana y Natural. Ed. Blume, Barcelona, España; Kolsman, E. y Vasquez, D. – (1996) Manual de Agricultura Ecológica, Ed. Simas Maela, Managua, Nicaragua.

115. Wright, page 160-161. (Refer to endnote 38.)

116. Miguel Angel Nuñez wrote to me in an email (March 11, 2010) that the ladybug is a good friend of agroecology because the ladybug helps to reach an equilibrium among other insects. It eats them. “Without an equilibrium, we won’t find productive harmony within the environment.”

117. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Miguel Angel Crespo. (Endnote 44.)

118. PROBIOMA press release concerning prize presented by the Ministry of Planning and Development/el Ministerio de Planificación y Desarrollo: PROBIOMA Gana Premio Nacional de Innovación Tecnológica, July 26, 2008. http://www.probioma.org.bo/

119. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Miguel Angel Crespo.

120. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Miguel Angel Crespo.

121. Interview with Bernardo Peredo: Indigenous Communities, Biodiversity, Natural Resources, and Sustainable Development in Bolivia. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, September 1, 2006 in La Paz, Bolivia. Published in In Motion Magazine June 10, 2007. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/bp_int.html

122. Interview with Juana Benavides: Sustainable Development in Bolivia / “Not Sustainable If It Doesn’t Mean Income For The Families” / The Management of Vicuña. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, September 10, 2006 on the road to Sajama National Park, Oruro Department, Bolivia. The Spanish/English interpreter was Bernarda Zellez with additional translation later by Nic Paget-Clarke and Janet Doyle. Published in In Motion Magazine May 16, 2007.
In English: http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/jb_int_eng.html
In Spanish: http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/jb_int_esp.html

123. Interview with Eufronio Herrera, Presidente del Consejo de Municipio San Pedro: Ending Dependence On Intermediaries. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, August 28, 2006 in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia. The Spanish/English interpreter was Mark Camburn. Published in In Motion Magazine November 12, 2007.
In English: http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/eh_int_eng.html
In Spanish: http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/eh_int_esp.html

124. La Agroecología en La Soberanía Agroalimentaria Venezolana by Miguel Angel Nuñez. Published by Imprenta de Mérida, C.A./IMMEGA, Mérida, Venezuela.

125. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Miguel Angel Nuñez (2007).

126. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Miguel Angel Nuñez (2007).

127. Interview with Devinder Sharma: The Politics of Food and Agriculture / Part 1 – From British Colonialism to WTO Rules and Privatization. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, August 25, 2003 in New Delhi, India. Published in In Motion Magazine November 11, 2003. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/devsh_int1.html

Chapter 3: Notes 128-179

128. In the interview mentioned in the caption, Lilian Hill describes the cob technique: “The technique that we are using for the walls is a material called cob which is a mixture of sand, clay, straw and water and we mix it in a proportion so that it all binds together — similar to bread dough or pottery clay. It’s a house that you sculpt together and use your entire body. You use your entire body. There’s no machinery involved in it. The house is handmade, made with the hands and the feet of the community, and the family, and visitors who have come.” Interview with Wahleah Johns and Lilian Hill of the Black Mesa Water Coalition: Sustainable Development — It’s Old But It’s New. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, June 13, 2004 in Kykotsmovi, Hopi Nation, Arizona. Published in In Motion Magazine July 1, 2004. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/wj_lh_int.html

129. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Wahleah Johns and Lilian Hill.

130. Interview with Ela Gandhi: The Gandhian View on Sustainable Development. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, August 26, 2002 in Johannesburg, South Africa. Published in In Motion Magazine December 3, 2002. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/eg1.html

131. An Autobiography or The Story of My Experiments with Truth by M. K. Gandhi, page xiv. Published in 1927 by Navajivan Publishing House, the Navajivan Trust, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. http://www.navajivantrust.org/

132. M. K. Gandhi, page 137.

133. M. K. Gandhi, page 293.

134. M. K. Gandhi, page 215.

135. M. K. Gandhi, page 443.

136. M. K. Gandhi, page 450.

137. Loot: In Search of the East India Company by Nick Robins. Published in openDemocracy, January 22, 2003. http://www.opendemocracy.net/theme_7-corporations/article_904.jsp

138. Interview with Gustavo Esteva: The Society of the Different — Part 1: The Center of the World. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, September 6-7, 2005, in Oaxaca, Oaxaca, Mexico. Published in In Motion Magazine April 8, 2006. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/gest_int_1.html

139. Originally reported as five.

140. Sixth Declaration of the Lacandon Jungle by the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN). From the mountains of the Mexican Southeast. Translated from Spanish to English by irlandesa. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/auto/selva6.html

141. Zapatistas In Mexico City To Promote The Indigenous Bill Of Rights. Photographs by Danny Turner-Lloveras, Mexico City, Mexico. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/mdf/mdf.html

142. Interview with Ela Bhatt, Founder of the Self Employed Women’s Association (SEWA): A Good Combination of Struggle and Constructive Work Create, as a Strategy, Alternative Economic Organizations. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke August 31, 2003, in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Published in In Motion Magazine December 18, 2003. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/ebhatt_int1.html

143. Interview with Jayshree Vyas, Managing Director of SEWA Bank: To Come Out Of This Vicious Cycle Of Poverty. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke August 29, 2003, in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Published in In Motion Magazine January 1, 2004. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/jv_int1.html

144. SEWA Bank August 2001 Information Packet, page 1.

145. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Ela Bhatt.

146. Wikipedia entry for Ganesha — http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ganesha

147. Interview with Severine Macedo, Youth Representative of FETRAF-SUL: Independent Alternatives for Rural Youth. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke August 29, 2004, in Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The Portuguese/English interpreter was Agnes Vercauteren. Published in In Motion Magazine July 30, 2005. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/sm_fetraf_int.html

148. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Ela Bhatt.

149. Interview with Altemir Tortelli, General Coordinator of FETRAF-SUL: “When Cooperative Structures Are The Instrument” and Autonomy. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke August 29, 2004, in Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The Portuguese/English interpreter was Agnes Vercauteren. Published in In Motion Magazine April 24, 2005.
http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/at_fetraf_int.html

150. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Severine Macedo.

151. “Us” were: Agnes Vercauteren who interpreted and is the FETRAF-SUL officer for international relations; Alexander Bergamin, president of CINTRAF, the local Chapecó union of family farmers; Luc Vankrunkelsven; and myself.

152. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Altemir Tortelli.
153. Declaración de Asunción – IV Encuentro Internacional de Pequeños Productores de Soya y la Sociedad Civil, 6,7, y 8 de Febrero del 2008, Asunción – Paraguay. Componentes: FETRAF-SUL — Federação dos Trabalhadores na Agricultura Familiar da Região Sul (Brasil); COPEP — Central de Organizaciones de Productores Ecológicos de Paraguay; CNFR — Comisión Nacional de Fomento Rural (Uruguay); ACIPACC — Asociación Comunitaria Integral de Productores Agropecuarios de Cuatro Cañadas (Bolivia); ASPANORS — Asociación de Productores Agropecuarios del Norte del Sara (Bolivia). Organizaciones de Apoyo: PROBIOMA (Bolivia); SER — Sociedad de Estudios Rurales (Paraguay); TEKOKATU (Paraguay); SOLIDARIDAD (Holanda).

154. Interview with Bertha Blanco of Bartolina Sisa / National Federation of Campesina Women of Bolivia / IPSP Department: For the Sovereignty of the Peoples – Part 1: Defense of the Peoples. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke September 7, 2006, in La Paz, Bolivia. The interview was conducted in Spanish, transcribed by Elena Carrillo, and translated into English by Janet Doyle. Published in In Motion Magazine February 25, 2007.
In English: http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/bb_int_1eng.html
In Spanish: http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/bb_int_1esp.html

155. Krebs, page 139.

156. Celebration of Zapatismo by Gustavo Esteva, CEDI, August 2004, This article is an edited version of an essay written for Multiversity & Citizens International.

157. Peter Rosset is a researcher at the Center for the Study of Change in the Mexican Countryside (CECCAM). CECCAM is a non-profit organization, which supports the peasant movement in Mexico. He is also the co-coordinator of the Land Research Action Network http://www.landaction.org

158. Interview with Peter Rosset of CECCAM and Land Research Action Network: Agrarian Reform, Land Reform, Food Sovereignty. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke April 15, 2005, in San Felipe, Yaracuy, Venezuela. Published in In Motion Magazine July 4, 2005. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/p_rosset_int.html

159. Naomi Klein defines and pinpoints the coining of “Washington Consensus” on page 163 of her book The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. It is the encapsulation and international promotion of Milton Friedman’s advocacy of privatization, deregulation (a facilitator of free trade), and government spending cuts.

160. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Peter Rosset.

161. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Geraldo Fontes – Part 1.

162. As evidence of the MST’s implementation of what Fontes is saying here, I re-quote from the official English-language website of the MST: “The MST has won land titles for more than 350,000 families in 2,000 settlements as a result of MST actions, and 180,000 encamped families currently await government recognition.” Also, the MST points out that the Brazilian constitution says that land that remains unproductive should be used for a larger social function. http://www.mstbrazil.org/?q=about

163. Our Homage To Commandant Bartolina Sisa, Incorruptible Aymara Leader by Iván Ignacio, Aboriginal Andean Nations Council / CANO (Consejo Andino de Naciones Originarias) — http://www.pusinsuyu.com/english/html/bartolina_sisa_english.html

164. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Bertha Blanco, Part 1.

165. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Bertha Blanco, Part 1.

166. Law 1,715 of the National Service of Agrarian Reform promulgated October 18, 1996. Bolivia: Government Takes Up Challenge of Land Reform by Franz Chávez, March 8, 2006, Inter Press Service News Agency. http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=32429

167. Interview with Piedad Guallpa of FAMAS (Agroecological Front of Women Artesans of Shagalpud): Medicinal Ointments: the Knowledge of the Ancestral People. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke September 4, 2007, in the FAMAS house in Shagalpud, Cañar Province, Ecuador. The interview was translated from Spanish to English by Mónica Fernández with later editing by Janet Doyle. Published in In Motion Magazine February 21, 2009.
In English: http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/pg_int_eng.html
In Spanish: http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/pg_int_esp.html

168. Interview with Bertha Blanco of Bartolina Sisa / National Federation of Campesina Women of Bolivia / IPSP Department: For the Sovereignty of the Peoples — Part 2: The History of Our Ancestors / Time to Take Responsibility for Political Decisions. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke September 7, 2006, in La Paz, Bolivia. The interview was conducted in Spanish, transcribed by Elena Carrillo, and translated into English by Janet Doyle. Published in In Motion Magazine March 6, 2007.
In English: http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/bb_int_2eng.html/
In Spanish: http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/bb_int_2esp.html

169. La Gran Victoria Boliviana by Adolfo Sanchez Rebolledo, December 10, 2009, Opinión section, La Jornada. Also: Evo Morales Wins Landslide Victory in Bolivian Presidential Elections by Rory Carroll and Andres Schipani, December 7, 2009, guardian.co.ukhttp://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/dec/07/morales-presidential-victory

170. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Bertha Blanco, Part 2.

171. Interview with Diógenes Lucio of FENOCIN, The National Confederation of Peasant, Indigenous, and Black Organizations: Agroecology and the Andean Cosmovision. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke August 30, 2007, in Quito, Ecuador. The interview was translated into English by Nic Paget-Clarke and Janet Doyle. Published in In Motion Magazine April 10, 2009.
In English: http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/dl_int_eng.html
In Spanish: http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/dl_int_esp.html

172. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Diógenes Lucio.

173. Interview with Xochimilco Zapatista and Puente a la Esperanza / Aide, Angelica and Victor: Where Dreams Can Be Created, Constructed. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke September 3, 2005, in Mexico City, Mexico. The Spanish/English interpreter was Brook Thompson. Published in In Motion Magazine August 7, 2006. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/mdfz_int_1.html

174. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Xochimilco Zapatista and Puente a la Esperanza.

175. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Xochimilco Zapatista and Puente a la Esperanza.

176. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Dr. Luis Macas.

177. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Bertha Blanco, Part 1.

178. Interview with Melquiades Cruz: A Zapoteco Community in Sierra Norte / Webs of Flowers. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke September 7, 2005, in Oaxaca City, Oaxaca, Mexico. The Spanish/English interpreter was Daniel Perera. Published in In Motion Magazine August 24, 2006. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/mck_int_1.html

179. M. K. Gandhi, text on back of book cover, An Autobiography or The Story of My Experiments with Truth.

Chapter 4: Notes 180-293

180. Very sadly, Tony L. Antonysamy passed away in 2009.

181. CEDA Trust — http://cedatrust.in/index.html

182. Global Warming: An Analysis of Problems and Facts by L. Antonysamy, Dindigul, Tamil Nadu, India. Published in In Motion Magazine March 22, 2008. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/tnec2.html

183. Indigenous Environmental Network — http://www.ienearth.org

184. Interview with Tom Goldtooth of the Indigenous Environmental Network: “First and foremost is our right to exist and to make our own decisions … .” Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke September 1, 2002, in Johannesburg, South Africa. Published in In Motion Magazine March 15, 2003. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/tg1.html

185. Creating Schools Where Race Does Not Matter: The Role and Significance of Race in the Racial Achievement Gap by Pedro Noguera, New York, New York. Published in In Motion Magazine September 2, 2008. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/er/pn_creating08.html

186. Noguera, Creating Schools Where Race Does Not Matter: The Role and Significance of Race in the Racial Achievement Gap.

187. Krebs, page 74. See endnote 72 about Sally Hacker.

188. Interview with Henri Tiphagne of People’s Watch – Tamil Nadu: Human Rights Organizations: Protective and Promotive Monitoring the State — Educating in the Schools. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke September 2, 2003 in Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India. Published in In Motion Magazine April 4, 2004. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/htiphagne_int.html

189. 1968 and Doors to New Worlds by John Holloway, Turbulence, 2008: no. 2, pp. 9-14. http://turbulence.org.uk/

190. Interview with Vandana Shiva: Discussing “Water Wars”: Resurrection of Commons, Community Rights, and Direct and Basic Democracy. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, September 1, 2002 in Johannesburg, South Africa. Published in In Motion Magazine March 6, 2003. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/vshiva3.html

191. An earlier form of liberalization, of free trade within the context of empire, began in the 1830s and 1840s as a strategy of the British empire. In that period, the British parliament passed three liberalization measures which ended the monopoly previously granted to the East India Company and unilaterally declared free trade. However, because of Britain’s dominant position, not only in India but in the world, all that “free trade” flowed through London markets and banks. Similarly, in today’s world, the U.S. reaps the advantages of its dominant position.

The three British laws were: The Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834, Peel’s Bank Act of 1844, and the Corn Law Bill of 1846. See Giovanni Arrighi’s The Long Twentieth Century, page 265. Published in 1994, 2010 by Verso, London and New York.

192. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Wahleah Johns and Lilian Hill.

193. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Peter Rosset.

194. Food First – http://www.foodfirst.org/

195. Krebs, page 243. Quoting from: The Family Farm: Caught In the Contradictions of American Values, by Frances Moore Lappé, published in Agriculture and Human Values, Spring, 1985, pg. 41. To learn more of Frances Moore Lappé’s writing and work visit the website of the Small Planet Institute at – http://www.smallplanet.org/

196. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Wahleah Johns and Lilian Hill.

197. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Gustavo Esteva: The Society of the Different – Part 1

198. CIA coups: Iran – The New York Times Special Report: The CIA in Iran, April 16, 2000 http://www.nytimes.com/library/world/mideast/041600iran-cia-index.html;

Guatemala – CIA site / Freedom of Information Act section http://www.foia.cia.gov/guatemala.asp, also Guatemala Coup, Global Security.org http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/guatemalacoup.htm;

the Congo – Private Military Companies: Options for Regulation, Ordered by the House of Commons (UK Parliament), page 28 of PDF, http://www.fco.gov.uk/resources/en/pdf/pdf4/fco_pdf_privatemilitarycompanies;

Vietnam – Tapes Show JFK Conflicted Over Saigon Coup, by Barry Schweid, AP Diplomatic Writer, November 3, 2009 http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/33606457;

Indonesia – Our Bloody Coup in Indonesia, Isabel Hilton, guardian.co.uk, August 1, 2001, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2001/aug/01/indonesia.comment

199. According to The New York Times, in 2009 there were 49 million people in the U.S. with inadequate nutrition, 13 million more than in 2007 and the most since the federal government began keeping records in 1995. Hunger in the United States. The New York Times Editorial, originally published November 17, 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/18/opinion/18wed2.html

200. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Devinder Sharma, Part 1.

201. Open Veins of Latin America: Five Centuries of the Pillage of a Continent by Eduardo Galeano, pages 28, 78-9. Published in 1973, 1997 by Monthly Review Press, New York. http://www.monthlyreview.org/

202. A Short History of West Africa: A.D. 1000 to the Present by T.A. Osae, S.N. Nwabara and A.T.O. Odunsi, pages 168-9. Published in 1968, 1973 by Hill & Wang, New York.

203. World Poverty ‘More Widespread’ by Steve Schifferes, BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7583719.stm

204. The New York Times reports that according to the FAO the world’s hungry have increased to 1.02 billion (one in seven people). Experts Worry as Population and Hunger Grow by Neil MacFarQuhar, October 21, 2009, The New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/22/world/22food.html

205. Klein, page 156.

206. Interview with Yin Shao Loong of Third World Network: Democracy at the International Level. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, September 3, 2002 in Johannesburg, South Africa. Published in In Motion Magazine June 21, 2003. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/ysl1.html

207. Interview with L. A. Samy and Christina Samy of AREDS and SWATE: The poor have to be united / You create alternatives. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, September 7, 2003 in Renganathapuram, Tamil Nadu, India. Published in In Motion Magazine November 6, 2004. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/samy_int.html

208. Paget-Clarke, Interview with L. A. Samy and Christina Samy.

209. A U.S. Hog Giant Transforms Eastern Europe by Doreen Carvajal and Stephen Castle, May 5, 2009, The New York Times.

210. Las Ciudades de Cerdos de Smithfield by Luis Hernández Navarro, La Jornada, May 12, 2009. Published in English in In Motion Magazine, translated from Spanish by Nic Paget-Clarke and Janet Doyle, http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/opin/lhn_pigs.html

211. Private conversation with Roger Allison, August 9, 2009.

212. North Carolina’s Largest Hog Producers by Environmental Defense Fund. http://www.edf.org/documents/2557_Hogwatch_largesthogproducers.pdf.

213. Boss Hog: The Power of Pork / North Carolina’s Pork Revolution by Pat Stith, Joby Warrick and Melanie Sill. Published in The News & Observer from February 19-23, 1995. Winner of the 1996 Pulitzer Prize (Public Service). Photos by Robert Willett. http://www.pulitzer.org/citation/1996-Public-Service

214. Navarro, Las Ciudades de Cerdos de Smithfield

215. Doreen Carvajal and Stephen Castle, The New York Times.

216. Navarro, Las Ciudades de Cerdos de Smithfield.

217. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 – Update 104, World Health Organization.
http://www.who.int/csr/don/2010_06_11/en/index.html.

218. Since these photographs were taken, both the USS Constellation and the F-117 have been retired from service. http://www.navsource.org/archives/02/64.htm ; http://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htairfo/articles/20080313.aspx

219. The Soils of War: The Real Agenda Behind Agricultural Reconstruction in Afghanistan and Iraq by GRAIN, March 2009. http://www.grain.org/briefings/?id=217 , also http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/grain_soil09.html

220. Japan Policy Research Institute — http://www.jpri.org/

221. Interview with Chalmers Johnson: Part 1 – An Empire of More Than 725 Military Bases. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, May 29, 2004, in Cardiff, California. Published in In Motion Magazine September 19, 2004. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/cj_int/cj_int1.html

222. Klein, page 378.

223. USNS Sisler — http://www.msc.navy.mil/inventory/ships.asp?ship=157

224. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Chalmers Johnson: Part 1.

225. Also see Klein, page 379.

226. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Chalmers Johnson: Part 1.

227. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Chalmers Johnson: Part 1.

228. The JOE 2008 / Joint Operating Environment: Challenges and Implications for the Future Joint Force by the United States Joint Forces Command (JFC), page 42-3. http://www.jfcom.mil/newslink/storyarchive/2008/JOE2008.pdf

229. Counterinsurgency — U.S. Army Field Manual / Marine Corps Warfighting Publication, December 15, 2006. http://www.fas.org/irp/doddir/army/fm3-24.pdf THis link now leads to a 2014 version entitled Insurgencies and Countering Insurgencies.

230. Global Issueshttp://www.globalissues.org/article/75/world-military-spending See the World Military Spending section and go to In Context: US Military Spending Versus Rest Of The World. Click on Comparing US with others tab. Accessed July 3, 2010.

231. Nemesis: The Last Days of the American Republic by Chalmers Johnson, page 271. Published 2006 by Metropolitan Books, New York.

232. Farming Systems and Poverty: Making a Difference, 18th Symposium of the International Farming Systems Association (IFSA) with FAO and IFAD. Rome, Italy. October 31 — November 4, 2005.

233. The Salesianum Centre is run by the Salesians of Don Bosco, “A Roman Catholic religious order founded in the late 19th century by Saint John Bosco … to care for the young and poor children of the industrial revolution.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salesians_of_Don_Bosco ; http://www.salesians.org/bosco.html

234. La Cooperativa Agricoltura Nuova — http://www.agricolturanuova.it/

235. I would later see references to these colony types as “settler/ exploitative” and “settler/peasant-export.” See: Land, Labour and Gendered Livelihoods in a “Peasant” and a “Settler” Economy by Dede-Esi Amanor-Wilks, Feminist Africa Issue 12.2009 — http://www.feministafrica.org/uploads/File/Issue_12/fa12_feature_amanor-wilks.pdf ; The Developmental and Democratic Challenges of Postcolonial Kenya by PTZeleza in African Affairs, as published in The Zeleza Post, September 23rd, 2008 — http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/developmental-and-democratic-challenges-postcolonial-kenya

236. Galeano, page 23.

237. Galeano, page 24.

238. Galeano, page 56.

239. Galeano, page 28 — Ernest Mandel, Marxist Economic Theory, 2 vols. (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1969), 2:443-44.

240. The Long Twentieth Century by Giovanni Arrighi, page 210. Published in 1994, 2010 by Verso, London and New York. Arrighi puts in context the Treaty of Methuen (1703) and the Treaty of Utrecht (1713) which gave England access to Brazil’s gold and the Spanish empire’s slave trade.

241. Galeano, page 78.

242. Arrighi, The Long Twentieth Century, page 204. Here, Arrighi also describes the three sides of the horrific triangle. He explains its importance to the industrial revolution and the development of the British systemic cycle of capitalism.

243. Capital: A Critical Analysis of Capitalist Production, Volume 1 by Karl Marx, chapter 27, pages 717-733. Originally published in 1887, this edition was published by the Foreign Languages Publishing House, Moscow, USSR (year not cited).

244. Karl Marx: A Brief Biographical Sketch with an Exposition of Marxism by V.I. (Vladimir Ilyich) Lenin, pages 24-36. This edition published 1976 by Foreign Language Press, Peking, People’s Republic of China. Also explained in: Anti-Duhring: Herr Eugen Duhring’s Revolution in Science by Frederick Engels, page 226. This printing 1972 by International Publishers, New York.

245. Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capitalism by V. I. Lenin. This edition published 1973 by Foreign Language Press, Peking, People’s Republic of China.

246. Lenin, Imperialism, pages 104-105.

247. The Sorrows of Empire: Militarism, Secrecy and the End of the Republic by Chalmers Johnson, pages 39-43. Published 2004 by Metropolitan Books, New York.

248. ‘Folly of Empire’ Offers Critique of U.S. Imperialism by Robert Siegel (quoting John B. Judis’ book). National Public Radio, June 2, 2009.

249. Arrighi, The Long Twentieth Century, pages 301-304. Arrighi describes the development of this process in the U.S., beginning with the Great Depression of 1873-96. According to Arrighi, this verticalization or “internalization of transaction costs” is a key characteristic of the U.S. systemic cycle of capitalism.

250. Mark Twain: A Life by Ron Powers, pages 599-603. Published in 2005 by Free Press, New York.

251. War Is a Racket by Smedley D. Butler, Major General, United States Marines (Retired). Published in 1935 by Round Table Press, New York. http://www.rationalrevolution.net/special/library/war_is_a_racket.htm , http://www.rationalrevolution.net/war/major_general_smedley_butler_usm.htm

252. The 20th century Great Depression lasted from 1929 to the early 1940s. As mentioned in endnote 249, the Great Depression of the 19th century lasted from 1873-96.

253. Lessons from the Great Depression for Economic Recovery in 2009 by Christina D. Romer, Council of Economic Advisers, to be presented at the Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C., March 9, 2009. http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/events/2009/0309_lessons/0309_lessons_romer.pdf

254. Roosevelt Letter to Frankfurter, 2/9/37. New Deal Network / Roosevelt Institute http://newdeal.feri.org/court/fdr01.htm Accessed and printed out June 14, 2009.

255. The American Economic Empire: Interview with Robert Hunter Wade. Challenge, vol. 47, no. 1, January/February 2004, page 69. Copyright © 2004 by M. E. Sharpe, Inc. http://www.challengemagazine.com/Challenge%20interview%20pdfs/Wade.pdf

256. Interview with Robert Hunter Wade, page 66.

257. Interview with Robert Hunter Wade, page 67.

258. Hear Our Voice sculpture was described by Friends of the Earth Vice-Chair Tony Juniper in a September 1, 2002 statement. http://www.foeeurope.org/activities/WSSD/giant_action.htm

259. Interview with Robert Hunter Wade, page 66.

260. Interview with Robert Hunter Wade, page 67.

261. History of Mergers and Acquisitions, in EconomyWatchhttp://www.economywatch.com/mergers-acquisitions/history.html

262. Klein, page 163.

263. Interview with Robert Hunter Wade, page 69-70.

264. F.I.A.S.C.O.: Blood in the Water on Wall Street by Frank Partnoy, page 43. Originally published in 1997, this edition in 2009, by W. W. Norton & Company, New York, London.

265. Partnoy, page 49.

266. Partnoy, page 29.

267. Partnoy, page 55.

268. Partnoy, page 253.

269. Partnoy, page 259.

270. International Swaps and Derivatives Association — http://www.isda.org/ Also see: Board of Directors under the About tab. Includes officers of Citi, Morgan Stanley, Goldman Sachs, Standard Chartered Bank, BP OIL International, Mitsubishi UFJ Securities Co., Ltd., Bank of America Merrill Lynch, Barclays Capital, etc.

271. Definition: Notional principal — Notional principal, or notional amount, of a derivative contract is a hypothetical underlying quantity upon which interest rate or other payment obligations are computed. http://www.isda.org/educat/faqsindex.html

272. ISDA 2009 — A Yearbook of ISDA Activities (International Swaps and Derivatives Association), page 47. http://www.isda.org/wwa/Retrospective_2008-2009_Master.pdf

273. Partnoy, page 264. Also, Bad Money by Kevin Phillips, page xxv, published in 2009 by Penguin Books, New York.

274. World Development Indicators Database, World Bank, 7 October 2009, Gross national income 2008, Atlas method. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DATASTATISTICS/Resources/GNI.pdf

275. Wall St. Helped to Mask Debt Fueling Europe’s Crisis by Louise Story, Landon Thomas Jr., and Nelson D. Schwartz, February 14, 2010, The New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/14/business/global/14debt.html

276. Another very sad passing was the death in 2009 of Roberto Martinez. Roberto was a dedicated Chicano civil rights and human rights activist for over 25 years. In 1992, he became the first U.S. citizen to be honored as an International Human Rights Monitor by the international human rights organization Human Rights Watch.

277. Interview with Roberto Martinez (1997): Immigration and Human Rights on the U.S.-Mexico Border. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, in San Diego, California. Published in In Motion Magazine September 14, 1997. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/border.html

278. History of Juneteenth, http://www.juneteenth.com/history.htm

279. Interview with Maria Jiménez (1998): The Militarization of the U.S.- Mexico Border / Border Communities Respond to Militarization / From Slave Patrol to Border Patrol. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke in Houston, Texas. Published in In Motion Magazine June 21, 2003. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/mj1.html

280. U.S./Mexico Border Program, an immigration law enforcement monitoring project of the American Friends Service Committee. http://www.afsc.org/sandiego/

281. Interview with Roberto Martinez (2001): Border Operations / Migrant Life / Organizing for Human Rights. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke July 7, 2001, in San Diego, California. Published in In Motion Magazine December 4, 2001. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/hrcr/rm2001a.html

282. Thanks to Operation Gatekeeper, Death Toll Increases to Over 5,000 by Mary Ann West, October 5, 2009, Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/mary-ann-west/thanks-to-operation-gatek_b_309744.html

283. The $1.4 Trillion Question by James Fallows, The Atlantic, January/February 2008. http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/print/200801/fallows-chinese-dollars

284. George Carlin Talks About “Stuff”. Watch the video — http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MvgN5gCuLac

285. Unequal America: Causes and consequences of the wide — and growing — gap between rich and poor by Elizabeth Gudrais, Harvard Magazine, July-August 2008. http://harvardmagazine.com/2008/07/unequal-america

286. Gap in Life Expectancy Widens for the Nation by Robert Pear, The New York Times, March 23, 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/23/us/23health.html

287. Bush/Geithner/Obama — U.S. President George W. Bush, Treasury Secretary Timothy F. Geithner, President Barack Obama. Secretary Geithner’s mentor was former Secretary Robert Rubin, a former CEO of the global investment bank Goldman Sachs. See: Rubinomics Recalculated by Jackie Calmes, The New York Times, November 23, 2008 http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/24/us/politics/24rubin.html?_r=1 And also: Larry Summers, Tim Geithner and Wall Street’s ownership of government by Glenn Greenwald, April 4, 2009, Salon. http://www.salon.com/opinion/greenwald/2009/04/04/summers/x

288. Revisiting a Fed Waltz With A.I.G. by Gretchen Morgenson, The New York Times, November 21, 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/22/business/22gret.html

289. Giovanni Arrighi was Professor of Sociology at Johns Hopkins University. Born in Italy on July 7, 1937, he died June 18, 2009. See: Giovanni Arrighi obituary: Political economist and historian of global capitalism by David Harvey, guardian.co.uk, October 8, 2009. http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2009/oct/08/giovanni-arrighi-obituary

290. Arrighi, Adam Smith in Beijing, page 231. (See endnote 22.)

291. Arrighi, Adam Smith in Beijing, page 143.

292. Arrighi, Adam Smith in Beijing, page 336.

293. Arrighi, Adam Smith in Beijing, page 336-341. In his comparison of China’s market economy system to Europe’s prior to the military attacks of the West on China (the Opium Wars: 1839-1842, 1856-1860), it was the history of “militarism, industrialism, and capitalism” in Europe which made them different. See more on this in this essay (And The Echo Follows) on pages 131-132.

Chapter 5: Notes 294-374

294. The turn of a phrase “An affirmation of equality” I learned from Diamantino Nhampossa’s “The affirmation of nationality was very important.”

295. Interview with Julio dos Santos Pessego of UNAC and UCASN: An Understanding of Associations. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke on October 27, 2008 in Lichinga, Niassa, Mozambique. The Portuguese/English interpreter was Edgar Basilio Ussene. Published in In Motion Magazine January 20, 2009. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/jds_pessego_int.html

296. Lake Profile: Malawi (Nyasa, Niassa), LakeNet. http://www.worldlakes.org/lakedetails.asp?lakeid=8350

297. Paget-Clarke, Food Sovereignty: A Glimpse of the Peasant and Small Farmer Association Movement in Mozambique (See endnote 104.)

298. “See, think, act!” Korean women work for peace, Women and Life on Earth. http://www.wloe.org/women-and-korea.140.0.html
Also see: PeaceWomen Across the Globe http://www.1000peacewomen.org/en/network/1000-peacewomen/search/geum-soon-yoon-617-27.html

299. Interview with Yoon, Geum-Soon of the Korean Women Peasants Association: Women’s Rights Are A Precondition to Food Sovereignty. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke on October 22-23, 2008 in Matola, Mozambique. The Korean/English interpreters were H.J. Park and B.S. Kim. Published in In Motion Magazine April 14, 2009. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/yoon_gs_int.html

300. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Yoon, Geum-Soon.

301. Interview with Cosma Bulu of Tanzania’s MVIWATA: The Role of Local Markets, the Life of Rural Women. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke on October 21, 2008 in Matola, Mozambique. Published in In Motion Magazine April 21, 2009. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/c_bulu_int.html.

302. Bolivian women spearhead Morales revolution by Andres Schipani, BBC News, Thursday, 11 February 2010 – http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8498081.stm

303. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Cosma Bulu

304. The Global Food Crisis and the Right to Food by Henry Saragih. Delivered on behalf of La Vía Campesina to the United Nations General Assembly in New York on April 6, 2009. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/h_saragih_un040609.html

305. Saragih, The Global Food Crisis and the Right to Food.

306. Crushing rocks to make a sand substitute in Tamil Nadu, India. Making a sand substitute helps to preserve riverbeds because construction corporations are taking sand. See endnote 207.

307. Interview with Henry Saragih, General Coordinator of La Vía Campesina and Chairman of the Indonesian Peasant Union: Not Wait for the Changing of Our Society Through the Government. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke on October 18, 2008 in Matola, Mozambique. Published in In Motion Magazine April 14, 2009. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/h_saragih_int.html

308. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Henry Saragih.

309. Interview with S. Kannaiyan of India’s Tamizhaga Vivasayigal Sangam: Democratic Decentralization of the Means of Production. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke on October 23, 2008 in Matola, Mozambique. Published in In Motion Magazine April 14, 2009. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/s_kannaiyan_int.html

310. Interview with Faustino Torrez of Nicaragua’s Association of Rural Workers: Part 1 – The People and Their Land. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke on July 1, 2008 in Managua, Nicaragua. Published in In Motion Magazine December 18, 2009. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/f_torrez_int1.html

311. Nicaragua’s literacy campaign by Dr. Ulrike Hanemann, UNESCO Institute for Education, March, 2005. This paper was commissioned by the Education for All Global Monitoring Report.

312. Mozambique President Armando Guebuza helped to formally begin the Vía Campesina conference. Here he is with Vía Campesina General Coordinator Henry Saragih (left) and Rafael Alegria, a Vía Campesina leader from Honduras. Rafael Alegria works with the CNTC (Central Nacional de Trabajadores del Campo.)

313. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Faustino Torrez.

314. Interview with Paul Nicholson, Member of the Basque Country’s EHNE: Food Sovereignty and a New Way of Internal Democracy. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke on October 17, 2008 in Matola, Mozambique. Published in In Motion Magazine February 23, 2009. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/p_nicholson_int.html

315. Interview with Ben Burkett of the National Family Farm Coalition in the U.S.: Civil Rights, Market Cooperatives, Buying Networks. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke on October 22, 2008 in Matola, Mozambique. Published in In Motion Magazine May 25, 2009. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/b_burkett_int.html

316. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Ben Burkett

317. See endnotes 167 and 171 for interviews with both FAMAS and FENOCIN. Also see more photos on page 70.

318. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Ben Burkett

319. Firesign Theater — http://www.firesigntheatre.com/

320. Arrighi, Adam Smith in Beijing, pages 314-336.

321. Arrighi, Adam Smith in Beijing, page 336.

322. Arrighi, Adam Smith in Beijing, pages 234, 315.

323. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, page 577. Originally published in 1776. This edition published in 1991 by Prometheus Books, Amherst, New York.

324. Farewell Radio and Television Address to the American People, by U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, January 17, 1961. Here is an extract: “This conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience. The total influence-economic, political, even spiritual — is felt in every city, every State house, every office of the Federal government. We recognize the imperative need for this development. Yet we must not fail to comprehend its grave implications. Our toil, resources and livelihood are all involved; so is the very structure of our society. In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist.” http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/All_About_Ike/Speeches/Farewell_Address.pdf

325. U.S. presidents who were generals: Chester A. Arthur, Dwight D. Eisenhower, James A. Garfield, Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, Andrew Jackson, Andrew Johnson, Benjamin Harrison, William H. Harrison, Franklin Pierce, Zachary Taylor, George Washington. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_United_States_Presidents_by_military_rank

326. Fisherman Fernado Vasco Machago has been a fisherman for ten years in Maputo Bay in southern Mozambique. He runs this small fishing business with a boat for fishing close to shore and another for deeper waters. For more photos see http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/pow_files/filephoto413.html

327. Arrighi, Adam Smith in Beijing, page 316.

328. Smith, page 5 (1991 publisher’s biography of Adam Smith).

329. Smith, page 6 (1991 publisher’s biography of Adam Smith).

330. Smith, page 68 and page 36.

331. Smith, page 53 and page 217.

332. Arrighi, Adam Smith in Beijing, pages 47-48.

333. Smith, page 430.

334. Smith, page 437.

335. Smith, page 426.

336. Smith, page 324.

337. Smith, page 416.

338. Smith, page 420.

339. ASARBOLSEM – Asociación Artesanal Boliviana Señor de Mayo

340. Bolivian FT advocate appointed minister of development, World Fair Trade Organization website, February 26 2010 — http://www.wfto.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1141&Itemid=314

341. Smith, 1991 publisher’s book jacket.

342. Smith, page 420.

343. Smith, page 587.

344. Smith, pages 582-585.

345. Smith, page 578.

346. Smith, page 587.

347. Smith, page 580.

348. Smith, page 586.

349. Smith, pages 589-90.

350. CNOP — Coordination Nationale des Organisations Paysannes.

351. Interview with Ibrahima Coulibaly of Mali’s CNOP / National Coordination of Peasant Organizations: To Gain Control of the Social Basis of the Economy. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke on October 22, 2008 in Matola, Mozambique. The French/English interpreter was Judith Hitchman. The edited interview was translated from English back into French by Audrey Mouysset. Published in In Motion Magazine August 17, 2009. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/i_coulibaly_int.html.

352. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Ibrahima Coulibaly

353. Interview with Logan Perkins of the organization Food For Maine’s Future: Local Economies and a Just Food System. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke on October 20, 2008 in Matola, Mozambique. Published in In Motion Magazine August 14, 2009.
http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/l_perkins_int.html

354. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Logan Perkins.

355. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Logan Perkins.

356. Holloway, 1968 and Doors to New Worlds. (See endnote 189.)

357. Smith, page 88.

358. The Agenda and Direction of the Anti-systemic Movements by Gustavo Esteva. Speech delivered at the First International Colloquium In Memory of Andrés Aubry, “Planet Earth: Antisystemic Movements.” San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico, December 2007. Translation from Spanish to English by El Kilombo Intergaláctico.
In Spanish: http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/gest_811_a.html.
In English: http://www.elkilombo.org/anti-systemic-movements/

359. Human Rights: The Trojan Horse of Recolonization, Chapter 4 of Grassroots Post-Modernism, Remaking the Soil of Cultures by Gustavo Esteva and Madhu Suri Prakash. Published in 1998 by Zed Books Ltd, London and New York.

360. See endnote 295 for Interview with Julio dos Santos Pessego

361. National Peasants’ Union of Mozambique / União Nacional de Camponeses Moçambique — UNAC http://www.unac.org.mz/.

362. ‘I was told this in Mozambique, but, also please see page 203 of The Long Twentieth Century where Arrighi traces the roots of English/Portuguese colonial association. Additionally, an aspect of this can be seen in the quote from Eduardo Galeano’s Open Veins on page 99 of this essay (And The Echo Follows).

363. FRELIMO — Frente de Libertação de Moçambique / Liberation Front of Mozambique — http://www.frelimo.org.mz/

364. The war was waged in the name of RENAMO — Resistência Nacional Moçambicana / Mozambican National Resistance.

365. Interview with Diamantino Nhampossa of the União Nacional de Camponeses / National Peasants’ Union: Organizing Food Sovereignty in Mozambique. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke on October 18, 2008 in Matola, Mozambique. Published in In Motion Magazine January 16, 2009. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/d_nhampossa_int.html

366. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Diamantino Nhampossa.

367. Part of a collection of ancient items kept at UTEBA (the Technological Institute at Barinas University) in Barinas, Venezuela. This stone instrument (it rattles when shaken) with a spiral was used in a ceremony with corn by an indigenous (agri)-culture of centuries ago. The Agroecology Institute at UTEBA teaches students who are children of local farmers using a “participatory research” methodology.

368. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Diamantino Nhampossa.

369. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Diamantino Nhampossa.

370. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Diamantino Nhampossa.

371. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Diamantino Nhampossa.

372. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Diamantino Nhampossa.

373. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Xochimilco Zapatista and Puente a la Esperanza

374. Victory for Scotland County Citizens Residents Vote to Reinstate Health Ordinance by Tim Gibbons, Columbia, Missouri. Published in In Motion Magazine August 9, 2009. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/ra09/tgibbons_2vics09.html

Chapter 6: Notes 375-432

375. Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe. First published in 1958. My edition published by Fawcett Publications, Greenwich, Conn.

376. Arrighi, Adam Smith in Beijing, page 386.

377. Arrighi, Adam Smith in Beijing, page 323. Did not allow them after the initial historic seven voyages of Admiral Zheng He.

378. The US Invasion of the Dominican Republic: 1965 by Salvador E. Gomez, University of Pittsburgh, Sincronía, Spring, 1997. http://sincronia.cucsh.udg.mx/dominican.html ; The U.S. invades Panama / December 20, 1989http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=5617 (History.com now highlights other anniversaries of this date.) ; The US Invasion of Grenada by Stephen Zunes of Foreign Policy In Focus, published in Global Policy Forum. http://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/155/25966.html

379. Tough times: Congress grew 13 percent richer in 2007 by Rob Hotakainen, McClatchy Newspapers, October 27, 2008. http://www.mcclatchydc.com/226/story/54838.html

380. From an unpublished phone interview by Nic Paget-Clarke with Roger Allison, executive director of the Missouri Rural Crisis Center, September 19, 2009.

381. Morgan Stanley Returns to a Profit by Graham Bowley and Matthew Saltmarsh, The New York Times, October 21, 2009. The phrase “returned to profitability” was changed in the version of the article currently online (January 23, 2010). Similarly, the phrase “top of the financial heap” has also gone. I have a printout of the original version. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/22/business/22bank.html

382. Paulson Assailed Over Bailout and Merrill Deal, in Deal Book edited by Andrew Ross Sorkin, The New York Times, July 16, 2009. Also, Bailout Is a Windfall to Banks, if Not to Borrowers by Mike McIntire, The New York Times, January 17, 2009.

383. The December 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen, Denmark.

384. Carbon Trading — How it works and why it fails by Tamra Gilbertson and Oscar Reyes, Critical Currents no. 7, November 2009, Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation, Uppsala, Sweden. http://www.dhf.uu.se/critical_currents_no7.html — Tamra Gilbertson and Oscar Reyes are both members of Carbon Trade Watch — http://www.carbontradewatch.org

385. Goldman Sachs Buys Into Carbon Offsets by Kate Galbraith, The New York Times, November 12, 2008. http://greeninc.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/11/12/goldman-sachs-buys-into-carbon-offsets/

386. Gilbertson and Reyes, page 91.

387. Mercado de carbono y calentamiento global by Alejandro Nadal, La Jornada, November 11, 2009. http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2009/11/11/index.php?section=opinion&article=027a1eco See also: Alejandro Nadal’s website — http://nadal.com.mx

388. I went to Trinidad and Tobago to interview Father Pantin and Sister Ruth of SERVOL. Based in Trinidad and Tobago, but working in several Caribbean nations, SERVOL is “an integrated human development programme designed to alleviate poverty through the empowerment of children, adults, and communities who live in disadvantaged situations.” SERVOL was awarded the Right Livelihood Award / the Alternative Nobel Prize. Interviews with Father Pantin and Sister Ruth of SERVOL: Taking Back Education. Interviews conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke on September 9, 2004 in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. Published in In Motion Magazine September 24, 2005. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/servol_int.html

389. Gilbertson and Reyes, page 92.

390. Gilbertson and Reyes, page 94.

391. Rainforest Resources Conflict in Northern Peru Turns Bloody, Bagua, Peru, Environment News Service, June 6, 2009. http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/jun2009/2009-06-06-01.asp . Also see: Peruvian Police Accused of Massacring Indigenous Protesters in Amazon Jungle published by Democracy NOW! June 8, 2009. http://www.democracynow.org/2009/6/8/peruvian_police_accused_of_massacring_indigenous

392. Raúl Zibechi is an international analyst for Brecha magazine in Montevideo, Uruguay. http://www.brecha.com.uy.

393. El Estado, un molino de viento by Raúl Zibechi, La Jornada, November 20, 2009. http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2009/11/20/index.php?section=opinion&article=018a1pol

394. Seized: The 2008 Landgrab for Food and Financial Security by GRAIN. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/grain_land08.html See the PDF Annex for a list of lands taken: Seized! GRAIN Briefing Annex: The 2008 land grabbers for food and financial security http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/landgrab-2008-en-annex.pdf. Also: Stop the global land grab! GRAIN-La Vía Campesina media briefing, Rome, November 16, 2009. http://www.grain.org/o/?id=87.

395. El Museo de Arte Contemporaneo Plaza, Av. 16 de Julio 1698, La Paz, Bolivia.

396. See and listen: http://www.laloguerrero.com

397. From Chaos To Clarity: The Price To Be Paid / Closing Keynote at the 21st Annual Meeting National Performance Network by Alice Lovelace. Published in In Motion Magazine February 5, 2006. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/ac06/al_clarity06.html

398. Harold Pinter Nobel Prize lecture Art, Truth & Politics. © The Nobel Foundation 2005.

399. See and listen to the entire Harold Pinter lecture on YouTube — http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GY2Z27Y-HJE

400. Piri Thomas’s website: http://www.cheverote.com Also see: Interview with Piri Thomas: The Inspiration to Write “Down These Mean Streets.” Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke in Berkeley, California. Published in In Motion Magazine January 21, 1998. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/ptinter1.html

401. Lourdes Portillo’s website: http://www.lourdesportillo.com/ Also see: Interview with Film Director Lourdes Portillo: “Not just the pyramids and menudo” Interview conducted by Fred Salas in San Diego, California. Published in In Motion Magazine December 6, 1998. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/lp.html

402. Lovelace, From Chaos To Clarity: The Price To Be Paid.

403. Soul Wound: The Legacy of Native American Schools by Andrea Smith, Amnesty Magazinehttp://www.amnestyusa.org/amnestynow/soulwound.html Also: The Roman Catholic Church ran more than 70 percent of the 130 Indian Residential Schools in Canada, Indian Residential School Survivors Society. http://www.irsss.ca/history.html

404. The 15 Most Expensive Movies Ever Made by Marcus Leshock, December 14, 2009 in Chicago Now Also: Hollywood’s Most Expensive Movies by Lacey Rose, December 18, 2006 in Forbes.comhttp://www.forbes.com/2006/12/18/movies-budget-expensive-tech-media-cx_lr_1214moviebudget.html

405. The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed February 18, 2010 — https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2056.html

406. In The Loophttp://www.imdb.com/title/tt1226774/

407. Nobel Prize Winner Norman Borlaug Dies at 95 by The Associated Press, September 13, 2009. NPR link, accessed 9/13/09, now gone, but I have a printout. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=112797070

408. The Matrixhttp://www.imdb.com/title/tt0133093/

409. Interview with Raymundo Sánchez Barraza: A University Without Shoes / An Indigenous Intercultural System of Informal Education. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke on September 3, 2005 in San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico. Interview conducted in Spanish. Translated into English by Janet Doyle. Published in In Motion Magazine December 18, 2005. In English: http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/rsb_int_eng.html In Spanish: http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/rsb_int_esp.html

410. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Raymundo Sánchez Barraza.

411. Interview with Pedro Reyes Millán: From Guerrilla Commander to Taparo Sculptor / Art and Production Models which Transfer Knowledge. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke on September 6, 2004 in Barinas, Venezuela. Spanish/English interpreter was Miguel Angel Nuñez. The interview was edited by Nic Paget-Clarke with Pedro Reyes Millán and Miguel Angel Nuñez. Published in In Motion Magazine December 10, 2004. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/prm_int.html

412. Interview with Mandla Mentoor: The Soweto Mountain of Hope / Making People Free. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke on September 4, 2002 in Soweto, South Africa. Published in In Motion Magazine June 8, 2003. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/mm1.html

413. Interview with Walter Chakela: Playwright, poet, theatrical director, and chief executive officer and artistic director of the Windybrow Centre for the Arts. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke on August 30, 2002 in Johannesburg, South Africa. Published in In Motion Magazine March 16, 2003. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/ac/wchakela.html

414. Albarracin-Jordan, chapter 2. See endnote 6.

415. Albarracin-Jordan, page 80.

416. Albarracin-Jordan, page 90

417. Hunger in America : The Growing Epidemic by the Physician Task Force on Hunger in America, Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press; Scranton, Pa.: Distributed by Harper & Row, c1985.

418. Paget-Clarke, unpublished interview with Roger Allison, September 19, 2009.

419. Interview with Nora Castañeda, President of the Women’s Development Bank: Making women sovereign and participative / Becoming the protagonist of their own reality. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke on September 7, 2004 in Caracas, Venezuela. The Spanish/English interpreter was Anaína Rivero. The Spanish/English interpreter during a subsequent visit in April 2005 to meet with recipients of BanMujer microloans was Miguel Angel Delgado. Published in In Motion Magazine April 30, 2005. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/nc_wdb_int.html

420. Interview with Oded Grajew: “Another World is Possible” / Social Responsibility: Rules for Being on the Market. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke on September 1, 2004 in São Paulo, Brazil. Published in In Motion Magazine December 19, 2004. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/ogwsf_int.html

421. Connected – How Kevin Bacon Cured Cancer (trailer) – Available on YouTube. http://www.youtube.com

422. Northeastern University, Center for the Study of Complex Network Research – http://www.barabasilab.com/

423. Interview with Susan Estrada: The Internet — Handwashing of the Future? Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke in Carlsbad, California. Published in In Motion Magazine September 17, 1997. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/estrada.html An original Internet developer, Susan Estrada founded CERFnet in 1988 and was executive director for 5 years. In 1993, Estrada founded Aldea Communications, Inc.

424. Air Mobility Command: Global En Route Strategy, a preparatory document for the Air Force Symposium 2009. The link to this document is now dead but I have a printout.

425. Air Mobility Command: Global En Route Strategy, page 1.

426. Air Mobility Command: Global En Route Strategy, page 4.

427. The Danger of Generals-as-CEOs: War-Mart by Clay Risen, April 3, 2006, The New Republic, http://www.tnr.com/article/the-danger-generals-ceos

428. Zibechi, El Estado, un molino de viento

429. Esteva, The Agenda and Direction of the Anti-systemic Movements.

430. GRAIN, The International Food System and the Climate Crisis. See endnote 61.

431. Change the World Without Taking Power by John Holloway, page 232. Published in 2002, 2005. Pluto Press, London, Ann Arbor, MI. http://www.plutobooks.com

432. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Paul Nicholson.

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